Medical Malpractice Archives -

Many people who suffer from a medical injury often wonder, “Was my medical treatment negligent?” Read on to understand the basics of medical negligence and what you should be on the lookout for if you think you received negligent medical treatment.

Medical negligence (also known as medical malpractice) means that the person who is supposed to provide medical treatment to you makes mistakes in doing so. Sometimes it’s more than one person who is at fault. Sometimes it could be multiple people who commit medical negligence. It could be, for example, multiple doctors as well as the nursing staff, the hospital administrators, pharmacists, etc.

As to how to find out if your medical treatment was negligent, a simple internet search won’t answer the question. In fact, there’s really only one way to know for sure. You have to first contact an experienced medical malpractice attorney who will undertake the following critical steps:

  1. Interview you. Your medical malpractice attorney needs to understand the whole picture: your condition before you sought treatment, the conversations you had with the medical professionals, the diagnosis, the treatment plan, the medicine, etc. If the medical malpractice attorney believes that you may have a valid medical negligence claim, they will ask you to sign a contingent fee agreement which is where the attorney represents you initially free of charge.  In the event that the case settles or receives a winning verdict, the attorney takes their percentage fee out of the funds that the defendants paid as a result of the settlement or verdict. Your attorney will also ask you to sign a form that authorizes the law firm to review your medical records.
  2. Obtain records. You may think obtaining medical records is something you’d be able to do easily on your own. In fact, it can often be hard for a client to know what to specifically ask for when requesting their records from a doctor’s office or a hospital. And often, the medical provider doesn’t give all the records in their possession. This is why you need an experienced attorney. Your attorney knows what to ask for and knows when the production of medical records is incomplete. In the case of incomplete records, sometimes the attorney has to involve the court in enforcing the medical provider to supply all of the requested records.
  3. Review records. Once your attorney is able to collect your records, they will review your records which may include health summaries, hospital notes, prescription slips, lab results, and all other necessary paperwork to fully understand the actions (and sometimes inactions) of the health care staff who may have been responsible for the medical mistake. It takes an experienced attorney to know how to analyze piles and piles of medical records. And it takes an experienced attorney to know which pieces of evidence are key to the success of the case. 
  4. Find an expert. Your medical malpractice lawyer needs to find an expert to certify to the court that the treatment you received was indeed negligent. But it’s not just enough for your attorney to hire any old medical expert. In fact, you’ll need a medical expert who practices the same field of medicine as the medical provider who harmed you. For instance, if your injuries occurred during gastrointestinal surgery, your medical malpractice attorney will likely discuss the case with an expert who is a gastrointestinal surgeon.

In sum, an experienced medical malpractice attorney will help you understand if your medical treatment was negligent. Find one at VSCP Law

When your loved one’s death is caused by the actions (or inactions) of another person, you may have a wrongful death claim. We get calls from a lot of grieving families seeking to sue others for the wrongful death of their loved one. There is a wide variety of different contexts in which their loved ones have died, but there are some categories for this type of claim that are more common than others. Below are the top five most common claims in wrongful death lawsuits.

Motor vehicle accidents

According to the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, there are about 5-6 million motor vehicle accidents per year across the United States. Of those, around 34,000 involve fatalities where at least one person (either the driver or passenger) has died. Sometimes, there is no one at fault – for example, the accident happened because a deer jumped into the road unexpectedly. But, more often with the calls we get, the accident has occurred because someone wasn’t driving carefully. In those cases, when we can link the careless or negligent actions of someone else, we file a wrongful death lawsuit on behalf of the grieving family. 

Surgical errors

Surgeons are responsible for doing exactly what they stipulate to and nothing more and nothing less. Perhaps they damage a nerve, operate on the wrong body part, leave a piece of surgical equipment (eg, gauze or scalpel) inside the body cavity, or they damage an organ. All of these mistakes support a medical malpractice action, as does any negligence by the anesthesiologist in the administration of the anesthesia. Your wrongful death lawyer can evaluate the actions and inactions of the surgical team who rendered you care and determine whether they committed medical malpractice.

Misdiagnosis

Healthcare providers often misdiagnose patients, which could lead to death. The more common conditions that doctors misdiagnose are heart attacks and strokes. For heart attacks, for instance, a woman might come to the doctor with complaints of nausea, shortness of breath, and fatigue and the doctor will incorrectly diagnose her as suffering from premenstrual syndrome or indigestion. For strokes, for instance, a patient can come to their doctor with severe head pain and disorientation. The doctor misdiagnoses them with a migraine. In both of these cases, failure to properly diagnose the condition could lead to the patient’s death.

Delayed Diagnosis

There are many medical conditions that require prompt intervention by healthcare professionals. For example, when cancer is detected, a team of doctors start to plan treatment. Treatment could include surgery, radiation, chemotherapy, and immunotherapy. All of these treatments must be done as expediently as possible because untreated cancer can grow and become deadly. But these treatments won’t become part of a patient’s care plan if no one diagnoses them with cancer. We often get calls from people whose loved one’s doctor failed to notice cancer on their diagnostic test and thus treatment for that loved one was delayed. If a doctor fails to timely diagnose cancer in a patient, they are reducing the likelihood of the patient’s recovery from it and increasing the likelihood that the patient will die from it.

Workplace accidents

Another area that clients call us about is workplace accidents. This can include, for example, someone falling to their death on a construction site or someone in a manufacturing warehouse being exposed to a toxic chemical. Related to the above category, this also often includes workers who are killed in a motor vehicle accident while transporting products for work.

Our goal, as wrongful death attorneys in Philadelphia and its surrounding areas, is to help people who have lost a loved one and seek justice on their behalf. If you believe your loved one died due to the misconduct of someone else, contact us today at VSCP Law.

When your loved one’s death is caused by the actions (or inactions) of another person, you may have a wrongful death claim. We get calls from a lot of grieving families seeking to sue others for the wrongful death of their loved one. There is a wide variety of different contexts in which their loved ones have died, but there are some categories for this type of claim that are more common than others. Below are the top five most common claims in wrongful death lawsuits.

Motor vehicle accidents

According to the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, there are about 5-6 million motor vehicle accidents per year across the United States. Of those, around 34,000 involve fatalities where at least one person (either the driver or passenger) has died. Sometimes, there is no one at fault – for example, the accident happened because a deer jumped into the road unexpectedly. But, more often with the calls we get, the accident has occurred because someone wasn’t driving carefully. In those cases, when we can link the careless or negligent actions of someone else, we file a wrongful death lawsuit on behalf of the grieving family.

Surgical errors

Surgeons are responsible for doing exactly what they stipulate to and nothing more and nothing less. Perhaps they damage a nerve, operate on the wrong body part, leave a piece of surgical equipment (eg, gauze or scalpel) inside the body cavity, or they damage an organ. All of these mistakes support a medical malpractice action, as does any negligence by the anesthesiologist in the administration of the anesthesia. Your wrongful death lawyer can evaluate the actions and inactions of the surgical team who rendered you care and determine whether they committed medical malpractice.

Misdiagnosis

Healthcare providers often misdiagnose patients, which could lead to death. The more common conditions that doctors misdiagnose are heart attacks and strokes. For heart attacks, for instance, a woman might come to the doctor with complaints of nausea, shortness of breath, and fatigue and the doctor will incorrectly diagnose her as suffering from premenstrual syndrome or indigestion. For strokes, for instance, a patient can come to their doctor with severe head pain and disorientation. The doctor misdiagnoses them with a migraine. In both of these cases, failure to properly diagnose the condition could lead to the patient’s death.

Delayed Diagnosis

There are many medical conditions that require prompt intervention by healthcare professionals. For example, when cancer is detected, a team of doctors start to plan treatment. Treatment could include surgery, radiation, chemotherapy, and immunotherapy. All of these treatments must be done as expediently as possible because untreated cancer can grow and become deadly. But these treatments won’t become part of a patient’s care plan if no one diagnoses them with cancer. We often get calls from people whose loved one’s doctor failed to notice cancer on their diagnostic test and thus treatment for that loved one was delayed. If a doctor fails to timely diagnose cancer in a patient, they are reducing the likelihood of the patient’s recovery from it and increasing the likelihood that the patient will die from it.

Workplace accidents

Another area that clients call us about is workplace accidents. This can include, for example, someone falling to their death on a construction site or someone in a manufacturing warehouse being exposed to a toxic chemical. Related to the above category, this also often includes workers who are killed in a motor vehicle accident while transporting products for work.

Our goal, as wrongful death attorneys in Philadelphia and its surrounding areas, is to help people who have lost a loved one and seek justice on their behalf. If you believe your loved one died due to the misconduct of someone else, contact us today at VSCP Law.

 

The brain is arguably the most important organ in a person’s body because it controls bodily functions as well as cognitive processing. The brain, as with all organs, needs oxygen to thrive. When a baby’s brain is denied adequate levels of oxygen, the baby suffers brain damage. That brain damage can result in cerebral palsy, which impedes a person’s ability to perform cognitively, control bodily functions, control voluntary movements, maintain balance, and to move. The nomenclature derives from cerebral (having to do with the brain) and palsy (weakness or problems with muscles).   

Could cerebral palsy be caused by medical malpractice?

Yes, cerebral palsy can be caused by medical malpractice. In fact, there are various different forms of

medical malpractice that can lead to cerebral palsy.

Failure to detect dangerous hypoxia before, during, or after the birth. As mentioned

above, a baby’s brain needs oxygen to thrive. “Hypoxia” is when the brain does not receive adequate levels of oxygen. If a doctor fails to realize that the baby is experiencing hypoxia – or, if the doctor does realize it and fails to do anything to prevent the hypoxia through urgent delivery and/or other

resuscitative measures – that doctor has likely committed medical malpractice.

  Failure to detect (and timely treat) infections. Infections can range from mild to severe, but in

all cases of a baby suffering an infection, the doctor must detect it early in order to be able to properly administer antibiotics or other therapeutic medicine. If the doctor fails to timely diagnose and treat an infection, the baby could suffer brain damage and cerebral palsy and/or other brain injuries.

 Failure to perform timely Caesarean section where indicated. Sometimes a vaginal birth is not possible or safe and the baby is better off being delivered by Caesarean section (or c-section). A c-section is where the doctor strategically cuts the mother’s abdomen and uterus so as to remove the baby from the uterus. A c-section may be indicated where the mother has a medical condition that prevents her from safely delivering her baby vaginally. A c-section may also be indicated when the traditional labor methods aren’t working – the labor isn’t progressing fast enough, the baby is too large to leave the mother’s body vaginally, the umbilical cord is pinched, the umbilical cord is wrapped around the baby’s neck, the baby is in distress, etc. Medical malpractice can occur when c-section is indicated to keep the mother and baby healthy and safe, and the doctor fails to perform the c-section in a timely manner, or at all. 

 Negligently performing the delivery. There are many ways a doctor can commit medical malpractice during the childbirth process. They could use excessive force in extracting the baby from the uterus or from the vaginal canal, they could twist the baby’s body in a way that causes injury, they could misuse the various delivery tools (forceps, vacuum extractor, scissors, clamps, specula, etc.),

they could fail to properly monitor the baby’s heartbeat, etc. These are all examples of negligent delivery.

Whatever actions or inactions led to your baby’s cerebral palsy or brain injury, contact the medical malpractice lawyers at VSCP Law to discuss whether you have a valid claim for medical malpractice.

What does the term “early discharge” mean in the context of a medical malpractice case? Let’s start with the second term, “discharge,” which refers to the action of a hospital releasing the patient from their care and sending them home. “Early” obviously refers to the timing – being released prematurely or too soon from the hospital is what qualifies as early discharge. Other ways to describe this are “premature discharge” and “untimely discharge.”

Many early discharge cases arise in the context of the emergency room. Emergency rooms (or ERs) are places where the hospital wants patients in and out – either the patient leaves the ER to go home or they leave the ER to be transferred to another wing of the hospital or an outpatient medical office. Either way, the hospital wants the patient in and out of the ER in quick fashion if possible so they can prioritize newly presenting patients.

Here are some examples of early discharge from the ER:

A woman goes to the ER because she has a terrible headache that she cannot get under control. The ER gives her a high dose of pain medication and that provides some relief. They discharge her. When she gets home, she starts slurring her words and it’s obvious to her family that she is suffering a stroke. She has to be rushed back to the hospital before her stroke causes permanent damage.

A teenager goes to the ER with shortness of breath. The ER says the difficulty breathing is because he’s having a panic attack and they help him calm down. When it appears that his breathing is more steady, they discharge him. In fact, the teenager was suffering from heart failure and needed emergency cardiac care.

A man goes to the ER after he is bit by his neighbor’s dog; the bite is swollen and painful. The ER gives him a shot of steroid and a high dose of pain medication and then discharges him. In fact, the swelling was evidence of a bacterial infection and the man dies days later because he was never prescribed an antibiotic.

Not all early discharge cases happen in the ER. Sometimes a patient could be treated as an outpatient when they should be kept overnight for further observation. And other times, a patient stays for a few days in the hospital and is released before being in properly stable condition.

And as you can see from the examples above, early discharge cases tend to be present where there is wrongful diagnosis (or “failure to diagnose”). When the diagnosis is wrong, the hospital tends to release the patient, thinking no further medical intervention is necessary.

Sadly, according to the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ), the following socio-economic factors may contribute to early discharge: 

The AHRQ refers to early discharge as “discharge failure” because not treating patients with the proper standard of care is indeed a failure.

If you believe that you or a loved one was discharged from a healthcare setting too early, contact the medical malpractice lawyers at VSCP Law.

 

What does “standard of care” mean in the context of medical malpractice?

You may have heard the term “standard of care” on television or from a law firm website. But what does it mean exactly? And what does it mean in the context of medical malpractice (also known as medical negligence)?

Before you can understand the term, it’s important to first comprehend the four necessary elements that comprise medical malpractice. In order to prove your medical malpractice claim, you have to establish the following: (1) there was a duty; (2) the medical professional breached that duty; (3) the medical professional’s breach of duty led to your injuries; and (4) you suffered injuries as a result of the medical professional’s actions (or inactions).

“Standard of care” arises in the context of that second element: breach of duty. It describes the skill, talent, knowledge, and expertise that is expected of the healthcare professional by fellow professionals in the medical community.

And standard of care applies in the area of specific medicine of the healthcare professional. In other words, the standards of care for a cardiologist (pertaining, for example, to reading EKGs and properly diagnosing heart abnormalities) are different from the standards of care of a pulmonologist (pertaining, for example, to reading chest x-rays and properly diagnosing a chronic cough).

Thus, when you are trying to prove that medical negligence occurred, you need a medical expert who practices the same field of medicine as the healthcare professional who harmed you. For instance, if your injuries occurred during gastrointestinal surgery, your medical malpractice attorney will likely discuss the case with an expert who is a gastrointestinal surgeon.

Assuming the gastrointestinal surgeon agrees that a medical error took place and caused your injuries, the expert surgeon will prepare a Certificate of Merit. A Certificate of Merit is a statement from an expert that says that the defendant healthcare professional you are suing deviated from the standard of care. In other words, her actions (or inactions) didn’t rise to the level of care expected of someone in her field of medicine. You must establish (with an expert) a deviation from the standard of care  – without it, you have not proved that necessary second element of your medical negligence claim: breach of duty.

Your medical malpractice attorney will file that Certificate of Merit along with the Complaint with the court, and thus begins your medical malpractice lawsuit.  

If you believe you or a loved one has suffered an injury as the result of a healthcare professional failing to meet the standard of care, contact the medical malpractice lawyers at VSCP Law.

If you are injured in a healthcare setting, you may be wondering whom you can sue for medical malpractice. Can you sue your doctor? Can you sue the hospital where you were treated? Can you sue both?

In Pennsylvania, you can sue both the doctor and the hospital under the same and/or different claims. In order to understand the possible claims, let’s first define medical malpractice. Medical malpractice is a negligence claim in the context of medicine. This means that if you have been injured because of what a doctor, nurse, or any healthcare professional has done (or has not done, but should have), then you might have a valid medical malpractice lawsuit. 

Suing the Doctor

A doctor is liable for medical malpractice when they had a duty to provide you a certain level of care, they failed to meet that duty, and their failure to fulfill their duty to you caused you to be injured. An example could be a radiologist who fails to notice a cancerous tumor when reading your x-ray slides, resulting in you suffering from a worse prognosis than if they had properly read your slides in the first place. Or maybe your general practitioner improperly diagnosed your abdominal pain as indigestion when in fact it was appendicitis, causing you to suffer a greater infection and injury than if the appendicitis was correctly diagnosed when you first treated with your doctor. In these instances, the doctor could be sued for medical malpractice for their failure to fulfill their duty to you and for causing your injuries.

Suing the Hospital

There are multiple different avenues for suing a hospital for medical malpractice.

         Vicarious liability. A hospital can be liable to a patient for their injury when its employee (e.g., a doctor, nurse, etc.) commits the error that caused that injury. This concept is called “vicarious liability” – it occurs when a business or organization is held liable for the actions or inactions of its employees.

         Hospital negligence. In addition to being subject to a lawsuit for the errors of its employees (vicarious liability), a hospital can be sued for its own errors. If the hospital, itself, as an institution, makes mistakes, it could be held liable for medical malpractice. A hospital could be negligent in many ways:

This area of the law is very case-specific and needs to be analyzed by an experienced medical malpractice attorney. Determining the exact claims against the doctor and the hospital is an important strategic consideration that only a medical malpractice specialist can perform. If you or your loved one was injured in a hospital setting, contact a medical malpractice specialist at VSCP Law.

 

Medical malpractice can occur when the healthcare professional makes an inaccurate or delayed diagnosis, or when they fail to make a diagnosis at all. A diagnosis is the identification of a condition, disease, or injury from its signs, symptoms, or other information. Failure to properly diagnose, missed diagnosis, and failure to timely diagnose are three main incidences of medical malpractice in the context of diagnoses.

 

Misdiagnosis 

 

Healthcare providers often misdiagnose patients, which could lead to serious injury or death. One important example of this medical error is doctors’ frequent misdiagnoses of heart attacks in women. Because women experiencing heart attacks have symptoms that differ slightly from men’s heart attack symptoms, doctors often fail to recognize that a heart attack is indeed what the woman is suffering from. While men may often experience chest pain or numbness in their left arms when having a heart attack, women may experience nausea, stomach pain, or dizziness. Poorly-informed doctors misdiagnose women with menstrual cramps or indigestion rather than treating them urgently for the heart attacks they’re experiencing. Incorrectly diagnosing patients could be medical malpractice.

 

Missed Diagnosis

 

In the above example, the doctor gave the wrong diagnosis. In a case of missed diagnosis, the doctor fails to give any diagnosis at all. Suppose a person presents to the doctor with a bad cough and the doctor concludes that it was just a symptom of the flu that was going around and sends the person home with no diagnosis. The person in fact was coughing because of cancerous tumors in her lung. The doctor in that instance missed the diagnosis of lung cancer and such missed diagnosis can be due to medical malpractice.

 

Delayed Diagnosis

 

There are many medical conditions that require prompt intervention by healthcare professionals. For example, a stroke is when blood supply to the brain is interrupted or reduced. This is an urgent medical issue and requires a timely diagnosis. When the healthcare professional recognizes the signs of stroke and acts quickly, they can help restore blood flow to the brain. Failure to do so will lead to oxygen deprivation in the brain, which can lead to brain damage, disability, and even death. If a healthcare professional delays diagnosis of stroke and/or fails to act urgently, thereby delaying or withholding lifesaving treatment and disability-preventing treatment, they could be held liable for medical malpractice.

 

Misdiagnoses, missed diagnoses, and delayed diagnoses can result in serious injury or death. In these cases, patients or their loved ones should consult with a medical malpractice attorney, like the experienced practitioners at VSCP Law.

 

The brain is arguably the most important organ in a person’s body because it controls bodily functions as well as cognitive processing. The brain, as with all organs, needs oxygen to thrive. When a baby’s brain is denied adequate levels of oxygen, brain damage can occur. That brain damage can result in cerebral palsy, which impedes a person’s ability to perform cognitively, control bodily functions, control voluntary movements, maintain balance and to move. The nomenclature derives from cerebral (having to do with the brain) and palsy (weakness or problems with muscles).   

 

Can cerebral palsy be caused by medical malpractice?

 

Yes, cerebral palsy can be caused by medical malpractice. In fact, there are various different forms of medical malpractice that can lead to cerebral palsy.

 

         Failure to detect potential dangerous hypoxia before, during, or after the birth. As mentioned above, a baby’s brain needs oxygen to thrive. “Hypoxia” is when the brain does not receive adequate levels of oxygen. If a doctor fails to realize that the baby is experiencing potential hypoxia – or, if the doctor does realize it and fails to do anything to prevent the hypoxia through urgent delivery and/or other resuscitative measures – that doctor has likely committed medical malpractice.

 

         Failure to detect (and timely treat) infections. Infections can range from mild to severe, but in all cases of a baby suffering an infection, the doctor must detect it early in order to be able to properly administer antibiotics or other therapeutic medicine. If the doctor fails to timely diagnose and treat an infection, the baby could suffer brain damage and cerebral palsy and/or other brain injuries.

 

         Failure to perform caesarean section where indicated. Sometimes a vaginal birth is not possible or safe and the baby is better off being delivered by caesarean section (or c-section). A c-section is where the doctor strategically cuts the mother’s abdomen and uterus so as to remove the baby safely from the uterus. A c-section may be indicated where the mother has a medical condition that prevents her from safely delivering her baby vaginally. A c-section may also be indicated when the traditional labor methods aren’t working – the labor isn’t progressing fast enough, the baby is too large to leave the mother’s body vaginally, the umbilical cord is pinched, the umbilical cord is wrapped around the baby’s neck, the baby is in distress, etc. Medical malpractice can occur when c-section is indicated to keep the mother and baby healthy and safe, and the doctor fails to perform the c-section in a timely manner, or at all.

        

         Negligently performing the delivery. There are many ways a doctor can commit medical malpractice during the childbirth process. They could use excessive force in extracting the baby from the uterus or from the vaginal canal, they could twist the baby’s body in a way that causes injury, they could misuse the various delivery tools (forceps, vacuum extractor, scissors, clamps, specula, etc.), they could fail to properly monitor the baby’s heartbeat, etc.

 

Whatever actions or inactions led to your baby’s cerebral palsy or brain injury, contact the medical malpractice lawyers at VSCP Law to discuss whether you have a valid claim for medical malpractice.

How Do I File a Medical Malpractice Lawsuit?

If you believe you have been injured because of what a doctor has done (or has not done), then you might have a valid medical malpractice case. Now what? How do you file a lawsuit?

In order to file a medical malpractice lawsuit, you should contact an attorney who has substantial experience in medical malpractice law. There are some legal cases that people try to handle pro se – on one’s own behalf. This is not one of them. You should not attempt to handle your own medical malpractice case. This is not the kind of case that can be done properly without an attorney.

Pennsylvania medical malpractice law is highly specialized. Below are some of the important steps a medical malpractice attorney will take to file your lawsuit.

Review records

Your attorney will review medical records, health summaries, hospital notes, lab results, and all other necessary paperwork to fully understand the actions (and sometimes inactions) of the health care staff who may have been responsible for the medical mistake. It takes an experienced attorney to know how to analyze piles and piles of medical records and which pieces of evidence are key to the success of the case.

Comply with statutory requirements

Pennsylvania medical malpractice law can be complex. There are several important statutes that must be followed in order to successfully file your lawsuit. For instance, under Pennsylvania’s Statute of Limitations law, you have two years to file a lawsuit, starting from when you knew or should have known that your injury was the result of the defendants’ medical mistake. In the case of a deceased party, Pennsylvania law allows you two years from the official death date to file a wrongful death medical malpractice lawsuit. If you miss this crucial deadline, you lose the right to file a lawsuit. So, your medical malpractice attorney will have to figure out the best timing for filing the Complaint. In addition to the question of when to file the lawsuit, your attorney needs to figure out where to do so. Your medical malpractice attorney should spend considerable effort figuring out the best venue for your case. Several factors go into this analysis, including location of medical treatment and whether the county is typically supportive of medical malpractice plaintiffs.

Find the right expert

Not only do you need a medical expert to help prove that medical negligence occurred in your case – you need a medical expert who practices the same field of medicine as the healthcare professional who harmed you. For instance, if your injuries occurred during gastrointestinal surgery, your medical malpractice attorney will likely discuss the case with an expert who is a gastrointestinal surgeon.

File the Complaint and Certificate of Merit

Assuming the expert described above agrees that a medical error took place and caused your loved one’s injuries, the expert will prepare a Certificate of Merit. Your Pennsylvania medical malpractice attorney will file a Complaint along with the Certificate of Merit in court.

And thus begins your formal lawsuit against the defendants.

An experienced medical malpractice attorney in Pennsylvania will help you file (and win!) your medical malpractice lawsuit. Find one at VSCP Law.